Potential protective role of carob ethanolic extract against diclofenac sodium-induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in male rats: Biochemical and Histopathological studies

Document Type : Original Article


Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt


Phenylacetic acid molecules known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), including diclofenac sodium (DFS), are used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and severe muscular rigidity. Overdosing on DFS can be harmful to the kidneys and liver. Our study aimed to assess the protective effect of carob ethanolic extract against DFS-induced hepatorenal damage in rats. Four equal groups of forty male rats were randomly assigned, with ten members each. Control group; rats were administered with normal saline; Carob group: rats orally administrated carob ethanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg for 7 days; DFS group: rats received 5 mg/kg diclofenac sodium orally for 7 days; DFS + Carob group received 5 mg /kg from DFS with 500 mg/kg from Carob ethanolic extract orally for 7 days. Blood and tissue samples are collected at the end of the experiment for determination of liver and kidney functions and histological analysis. The obtained results demonstrated a significant increase in serum ALT and AST enzyme activities, a significant decrease in albumin concentration, and a significant increase in kidney function biomarkers in the DFS group when compared to the control group. However, administration of carob ethanolic extract with DFS exhibited an obvious ameliorating effect against severe biochemical alterations induced by DFS. This ameliorating role was confirmed by the histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. In conclusion, our result indicated that carob ethanolic extract improves liver and kidney functions. Therefore, it can be used as a preventive treatment against DFS-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats.


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