Isolation and Genetic characterization of foot and mouth disease virus causing an outbreak at Qalyabia government in 2021

Document Type : Original Article


1 virology department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; Benha University, Moshtoher, Benha, Egypt

2 FMD department, Veterinary serum and vaccines research institute, Agriculture research center

3 FMD department, Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt


Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious transboundary disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. The uncontrolled animal movement has a significant role in the disease circulation in endemic areas. Accurate and early diagnosis is critical for FMD control. 17 tongue epithelium and 3 vesicular fluid samples were collected from 5 cattle farms and 9 tongue epithelium and 1 vesicular fluid samples were collected from 3 buffalo farms suspected to be infected with Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) at Qalyabia government in 2021. Trail of Virus isolation was carried out on BHK-21 cell line followed by conventional RT-PCR for typing of the obtained virus isolate. Partial sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 for the field isolate revealed that it was serotype O topotype EA-3 lineage Alx-17 (FMDV/O/EGY/Qalyabia/2021/OM681353) and closely related to the previously local Egyptian isolate in 2017 (FMDV/O/EGY/2017/OM221230.1) with nucleotide identity 99.36% and sharing nucleotide similarity 99.72% with the previously isolated virus from Sudan (FMDV/O/SUD/2017/MK422569.1) and Ethiopia (FMDV/O/ETH/2017/ MN987453.1) during 2017 That suggests the transboundary incursion. The isolated FMDV/O/EA-3/Alx-17 sharing 85.65% nucleotide identity with the sequenced FMDV serotype O topotype ME-SA lineage Sharqaui-72 (FMDV/O/EGY/OM681355), While 15.28% nucleotide difference between The isolated FMDV/O/EA-3/Alx-17 and the vaccine strain PanAsia-2 (FMDV/O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2/OK642671.1). The sequenced Sharqaui-72 virus revealed 86.01% sequence identity with the PanAsia-2 vaccine strain. The authors recommend for periodical molecular and genetic characterization between field isolates and vaccine strains, more cross-matching (R-value) and challenge studies between EA-3 viruses and PanAsia-2 vaccine strain, in addition to strict quarantine measures for the imported animals.


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