Some risk factors affecting the pregnancy rate of Holstein-Friesian cows under Egyptian conditions and the economic impact of the first service failure.

Document Type : Original Article


1 Animal and Poultry Production, Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University

2 Animal wealth development department, Faculty of veterinary medicine,Benha university,Quwesina ,Egypt


The insemination efficiency depends on several genetic and non-genetic factors. This work was done to assess the impact of some non-genetic factors (age at 1st service (AFS), parity, artificial insemination (AI) season, days from calving to 1st service (DFS), number of services per conception (S/C), 305 milk yield (305-MY), and incidence of mastitis before 1st AI) on the conception rate (CR) of Holstein Friesian cows with estimating the economic losses of 1st AI failure. Our study was carried out through field surveys on 3729 Holstein cows at the period between the winter of 2017 to the summer of 2022. The overall CR was 46%, it differed significantly among the parity, AFS, AI season, DFS, and S/C. The CR was significantly higher for cows at age ≤3y, and for primiparous ones, also when AI was performed during the early stage of lactation (≤60d), and for those inseminated in the summer season. Moreover, the higher S/C no resulted in a higher CR. Failure of the 1st AI resulted in extra costs of $168.39/extra one day of days open (DO) with $15.39 for an extra S/C. Finally, we recommend the owner to replace the old cows, with a regular cow supervision to inseminate cows in the estrous shortly after calving, with cost-benefit analysis on their dairy farms regularly.


Main Subjects