Histological and immunohistochemical studies of the adrenal cortex in she-camel with special reference to age variation

Document Type : Original Article


Department of histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University


The adrenal glands, responsible for regulating important body functions. This study aimed to examine the structure of the adrenal cortex in 15 healthy she-camels. The camels were divided into three groups based on their age: immature 1-2, mature 3-7, and senile up to 12 years which are not equally divided. Camel adrenal glands are enveloped by a dense network of collagen fibers, forming a unique capsule. This capsule comprised an outer fibrous layer and an inner cellular layer. Notably, connective tissue trabeculae originating from the inner side of the capsule invaded the gland's cortical parenchyma, giving the glomerulosa a distinctive arrangement. This arching system was prominent in mature and senile camels but absent in the immature ones, where eosinophilic cells formed clusters resembling follicles. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was used for general tissue visualization, Masson's trichrome (MTC) staining for collagen fiber, and orcein staining for elastic fiber visualization.
Immunohistochemical analysis using caspase3 as an apoptotic marker and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a marker for cell proliferation shed light on cellular behavior. The immunohistochemical staining revealed strong positive nuclear reactions of PCNA in immature and senile camels, respectively, and weak responses in mature camels. Additionally, caspase 3 exhibited cytoplasmic and nuclear reactivity, transitioning from weak positive in mature camels to strong positive in both immature and senile stages.
In conclusion, our study unraveled interesting similarities and distinctive features of camel adrenal glands, providing insights into their architecture.


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