Document Type : Original Article
Department of theriogenology, faculty of veterinary medicine; Zagazig university; 44519 Zagazig; Egypt
Department of theriogenology, faculty of veterinary medicine; Zagazig university; 44519 Zagazig; Egypt.
Inflammation of endometrial layer of uterus is termed as “endometritis”. Endometritis is one of the most common postpartum uterine diseases that influence animal’s profitability. The severity of a health issue is affected by bacterial load, pathogenicity, and cow immunological status. There are several risk factors responsible for the prevalence of disease, such as; metabolism, abnormal calving, parity of cow and retained placenta. There are several techniques for diagnosis of endometritis including endometrial cytology, which is regarded as the most reliable approach for detecting whether a cow has clinical or subclinical endometritis based on presence of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Also, negative energy balance (NEB) has been reported as a great threatening to animal’s health. Subclinical endometritis (SE) has been linked to an elevation in levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) on comparing to healthy cows. Traditional strategies for treatment of endometritis include infusion of antibiotics, injection of hormones and using of povidone-iodine. However, Recently, scientists focused on developing alternative treatments to avoid the unnecessary prescription of antibiotics in treating dairy cows suffering from uterine infections. For example, using ozone for prevention of subclinical and clinical endometritis. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the definition, causes, risk factors, pathogenesis, recent diagnostic tools and giving recommendation to the recent guidelines for treatment.